Sport Management – ADDIE Style

These are my thoughts on sport management using the ADDIE model – there are some economies of scale gained from the sport marketing exercise I did earlier in the week. The Analyse phase in particular has a lot of similar material, but I have inclued here so this entry can be read independently of the Sport Marketing entry. The material I am using is from the College of Education, Idaho State University.

Who is the audience?
Audience is BHMS Students. These students are a mix of school leavers and mature age students. About 75% of students choose to study externally. This is often because of geographical constraints, with students coming from all around Australia and overseas, but local students also choose to study via this mode to fit in work and other comitments.

What do they need to learn?
The course synopsis states: An introduction to management models applicable to the sport domain. The structures of sport delivery systems are explained and analysed as well as the implications of organisational behaviour, financial management, risk management, the law and ethical principles. It is a requirement of this course to have access to the CQU website and Internet.

The course learning outcomes are:
1. the structure of the Australian sports industry
2. project management process and its application to the planning of sporting events as well as the economic significance of sporting events
3. the relevant HRM issues pertaining to volunteers, umpires and officials and athletes
4. risk management procedures necessary for sporting organisations as well as their broader legal context
5. the economic, organisational and legal status of professional sports leagues.

• Create a concept map based on preliminary research.

What are the delivery options?
The course will be delivered for internal and external students. The internal delivery will occur through a weekly workshop. The external delivery will occur through Blackboard. Students are able to access the same resources on Blackboard, regardless of their mode of study. Study materials will be provided for students to download through Blackboard, so it is a delivery mechanism as well as a teaching and collaboration medium.

What constraints exist?
External students often have only dial up internet and sometimes struggle to access the internet. Feedback suggests that regular weekly activities don’t offer enough flexibility for external students – although I do feel that some regular study should be encouraging through the testing of learning.

What will the students do to determine competency?
The focus of the course has shifted somewhat since the official objectives were written. The first three objectives are now covered in another subject (Sport Planning and Development), and the major outcome from sport planing (demonstrate an understanding of sport management in a ‘real world’ context) has been included in this course. The fourth objective is covered in another course (Introduction to Risk Management) and the fifth objective is no longer covered, as it was included due to being a research interest of my predecessor. The program is currently under review, so these objectives will be officially changed as part of that process.

This subject has been designed as Part II of Sport Planning and Development, as the students complete them one term after the other. My reasoning behind the re-organisation of the objectives is based on Terry’s (1960) four functions of management: plan, organise, lead and control. Plan and organise are covered in Sport Planning and Development, lead and control are covered in Sport Management.

I also want to consider some generic skills or different methods of assessment to make the course more relevant and interesting – and to provide some variety for me. I also want the assessment to balance effectiveness and efficiency in terms of providing meaningful learning and assessment that is not onerous to mark.

What is the timeline for project completion?
The course will go for 12 weeks, commening in 9 July and concluding on 8th October. Weekly workshops have been scheduled for 3 hours each week, with a break held after Week 6 (approximately mid August).

What are the classroom/Web learning differences?
I try to keep assessmnet similar for students regardless of their study mode. This allows students to have some flexibility of their study mode regardless of enrolment implications. It also provides less confusion. I am looking at incorporating quizzes as revision activities, but am not sure how the tutorial activities would fit in. I have previously given 10% of marks for attendeance, which could be either in class or completeting the tute activities onlineI am thinking that students in internal mode are those that prefer face to face learning, but they won’t get marks for this – the same as external students don’t get marks for merely downloading the study guide. The quizzes will be administered via Blackboard, and these marks would take the place of the attendance. This will then provide students with the incentive to study regularly, get feedback on their learning. How they learn (in class or online) is up to them.

What are the online pedagogical considerations?
During the term that just finished, I had the opportunity to use video streaming. This was very well received by students. The regular study guides that I have produced for the last few years have continued to receive positive feedback. They are designed to be low res (easy for students on dial up), and can be read online (no colums), or printed out. They were made available on a weekly basis, and all bar a couple of students were happy with this. Students that watched the video said that they printed out the study guide first and then watched.

A student suggested that maybe a podcast would be useful, so they could learn away from the computer. At this stage, I am thinking that a mix of video and podsacting might be good. Given the differences in the mediums, both would need to be done differently, so “the works” won’t be happening this term! I will give both a try this term and see what is most popular. I also have a copy of some software called Adobe Captivate which I am going to have a play with. Skype was a major hit with students. We ran a couple of teleconferences and recorded them with PowerGrammo for sharing. Students also like the messenger function that they could use to have a quick chat or ask questions.

What are your objectives?
The overall course objectives have been listed previously, but really the only objective is: demonstrate an understanding of sport management in a ‘real world’ context. Some weekly objectives have been gained from the course text, Sport Management: a guide for professional practice. This text was found to fit with some of the content.

What skills, knowledge and attitudes are you trying to develop?
The course objective is concerned with application, which is Level 3 of the cognitive domain. The objective is very broad, and ultimately depends on my definition of sport management. Sport Planning and Development focussed very much on the mechanics of planning from a strategic, business, project and personal perspective. This covers the planning and organising perspectives. Sport Management to cover the leading and controlling functions of management needs to have more of an organisational behaviour, human resourse management perspective. The absence of a set text that covers these areas specficially is plus and a minus: lots of flexbility, but no structure or guidance.

The skills/psychomotor and attitudes/attributes/affective domains explicitly aren’t covered. Learning does occur in the affective domain through the process of learning and assessment process, but isn’t conciously addressed at this stage.

What resources and strategies will you use in your instruction?
The face to face delivery will be a workshop format (not lecture!). Wherever possible this means that I try to deliver small chunks of information and provide students with small group activities, questioning or disucssion to break up the session. External students will be directed to download the study guide each week to read through and then post optional discussion activities. Video and/or audio will be made available each week.

How will you structure the content of your learning material?
The content is not determined by a text book. The topics have evolved over the past few years and I have ammended them again. This is partly driven by available and suitable texts with the related topics. The relevant chapters are made availabel to students via the CQU library website to comply with copyright requirements.

Like Sport Marketing, I am trying to get a balance between making the course inflexible by asking students to complete weekly tasks (last term I gave 2 week windows, which was OK for most people), and having people attempt to cram all of the learning into a short amount of time.<

How will you assess the learner’s understanding and whether or not they have met the objectives of the instruction?
I like to keep a similar structure between the courses I teach, because I find that it keeps consistent with my teaching and assessment strategies at the time. I will include quizzes instead of a discussion board to assess and give regular feedback on learning (as per Sport Marketing). I also like to include a presentation each term, because students need plenty of practice at this. In terms of two other assessment piecies, I will include a literature review. I had intended on this for Sport Marketing, but changed my mind and have gotten students to do a research project instead, given the wealth of data available for anlaysis on the internet.

In terms of a real world analysis, I am thinking of getting students to create a case study on an organisation, similar to an article by Shilbury and Hooper (1999). This will give the students in interesting time in researching and creating an case study about an organisation they are interested in, but also applying the theorectical concepts to a real world sitauation. In keeping with my formula, this will be a group assessment piece. Given the the research project for marketing will take some time to gather data, I didn’t include a peer assessment process, but I think that I will include one for this subject with the literature review.

So we will have:
Eleven or twelve quizzes that will have staggered cut off times during the term. There will be 20 questions that can be completed in one hour. Re-attempts will  be permitted. These will be worth 15% of the overall grade. Students must complete at least 10 of the 12 quizzes
Topic presentation. Using the any sport management topic, come up with a presentation. A practical example must be included and discussed. Worth 20% of the overal grade.
Marketing plan. Completed in groups of 2-4. Worth 30% of the overall grade (including potentially some peer assessment).
Literature review. Completed individually, but submitted to a peer, who must “mark and comment on the paper”. The student then takes that feedback on board to modify their assessment. The final assessment and peer report much be submitted for marking (25 and 10% respectively).

To ensure that students approach their learning in a consistent manner and across the duration of the term, students must achieve a total mark of 50% or higher in each of the four assessment pieces. The opportunity to re-submit assessment 2-4 will be provided to students.

During the development phase, all audio, video and text materials  are collected, prepared or created. Documentation is prepared and the product is ready to be tested – this the next step… Luckily I subscribe to the “just in time teaching” theory!

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Danya Hodgetts

Dr Danya Hodgetts is a Sport Management consultant, educator and researcher with more than 20 years experience in the sport industry. Danya specialises in developing and implementing innovative education, training and professional development programs for national and state sporting bodies, TAFE and University.

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