Sport Marketing – ADDIE style…

These are my thoughts on sport marketing using the ADDIE model. The material I am using is from the College of Education, Idaho State University.

• Who is the audience?
Audience is BHMS Students. These students are a mix of school leavers and mature age students. About 75% of students choose to study externally. This is often because of geographical constraints, with students coming from all around Australia and overseas, but local students also choose to study via this mode to fit in work and other comitments.

• What do they need to learn?
The course synopsis states: The principles and practices associated with marketing of community and commercial sporting services. Special focus is directed toward the skills of service marketing. It is intended that students gain theoretical knowledge and practical skills in sponsorships, public relations, promotions, fundraising and ticketing applied to sport.

The course learning outcomes are:
1. know, comprehend, apply and analyse the basic features of sport marketing
2. conduct a literature review of the current sport and physical activity marketing literature
within a given topic
3. develop a sound and authentic marketing plan for a sport organisation.

• Create a concept map based on preliminary research.

• What are the delivery options?
The course will be delivered for internal and external students. The internal delivery will occur through a weekly workshop. The external delivery will occur through Blackboard. Students are able to access the same resources on Blackboard, regardless of their mode of study. Study materials will be provided for students to download through Blackboard, so it is a delivery mechanism as well as a teaching and collaboration medium.

• What constraints exist?
External students often have only dial up internet and sometimes struggle to access the internet. Feedback suggests that regular weekly activities don’t offer enough flexibility for external students – although I do feel that some regular study should be encouraging through the testing of learning.

• What will the students do to determine competency?
Two of the course objectives (2 adn 3) are assessment focussed: completeing a literature review and a marketing plan. I also want to consider some generic skills or different methods of assessment to make the course more relevant and interesting – and to provide some variety for me. I also want the assessment to balance effectiveness and efficiency in terms of providing meaningful learning and assessment that is not onerous to mark.

• What is the timeline for project completion?
The course will go for 12 weeks, commening in 9 July and concluding on 8th October. Weekly workshops have been scheduled for 3 hours each week, with a break held after Week 6 (approximately mid August).

• What are the classroom/Web learning differences?
I try to keep assessmnet similar for students regardless of their study mode. This allows students to have some flexibility of their study mode regardless of enrolment implications. It also provides less confusion. I am looking at incorporating quizzes as revision activities, but am not sure how the tutorial activities would fit in. I have previously given 10% of marks for attendeance, which could be either in class or completeting the tute activities onlineI am thinking that students in internal mode are those that prefer face to face learning, but they won’t get marks for this – the same as external students don’t get marks for merely downloading the study guide. The quizzes will be administered via Blackboard, and these marks would take the place of the attendance. This will then provide students with the incentive to study regularly, get feedback on their learning. How they learn (in class or online) is up to them.

• What are the online pedagogical considerations?
During the term that just finished, I had the opportunity to use video streaming. This was very well received by students. The regular study guides that I have produced for the last few years have continued to receive positive feedback. They are designed to be low res (easy for students on dial up), and can be read online (no colums), or printed out. They were made available on a weekly basis, and all bar a couple of students were happy with this. Students that watched the video said that they printed out the study guide first and then watched.

A student suggested that maybe a podcast would be useful, so they could learn away from the computer. At this stage, I am thinking that a mix of video and podsacting might be good. Given the differences in the mediums, both would need to be done differently, so “the works” won’t be happening this term! I will give both a try this term and see what is most popular. I also have a copy of some software called Adobe Captivate which I am going to have a play with. Skype was a major hit with students. We ran a couple of teleconferences and recorded them with PowerGrammo for sharing. Students also like the messenger function that they could use to have a quick chat or ask questions.

• What are your objectives?
The overall course objectives have been listed previously. The weekly objectives have been gained from the course text, Strategic Sport Marketing. This text was found to fit with the previous content.

• What skills, knowledge and attitudes are you trying to develop?
The first course objective covers levels 1-4 of the cognitive domain of Blooms taxonomy (know, comprehend, apply and analyse). The second course objective applies to the level 5 (synthesis) domain through asking to conduct [create]. The third course objective is also from the synthesis domain (develop).

The skills/psychomotor and attitudes/attributes/affective domains explicitly aren’t covered. Learning does occur in the affective domain through the process of learning and assessment process, but isn’t conciously addressed at this stage.

• What resources and strategies will you use in your instruction?
The face to face delivery will be a workshop format (not lecture!). Wherever possible this means that I try to deliver small chunks of information and provide students with small group activities, questioning or disucssion to break up the session. External students will be directed to download the study guide each week to read through and then post optional discussion activities. Video and/or audio will be made available each week.

• How will you structure the content of your learning material?
The content will be structured in weekly topiccs, partially determined, but not always by the text book. This provides managable chunks of work and also guides students as to the pace of the learning in relation to the assessment. I am trying to get a balance between making the course inflexible by asking students to complete weekly tasks (last term I gave 2 week windows, which was OK for most people), and having people attempt to cram all of the learning into a short amount of time.

• How will you assess the learner’s understanding and whether or not they have met the objectives of the instruction?
Therin lies the problem! Obviously the second and third learning objectives spell out two assessment tasks: a marketing plan and a literature review, and I am going to include a quiz… But who, what, where, when, why and how? I am thinking of two marketing plans – one as a presentation on a social marketing case study (as a formative practice piece) and a group one on a club of the student’s choice (as a summative exercise).The presentation will have the option of being in pair and the marketing plan will have be in groups of 2-4.With the literature review, my biggest issue has been that student’s focus deeply on one area and may neglect others, but I guess the other areas get assessed through the marketing plan and quizzes. In the instance of sport marketing, students usually just focus on sponsorship. Maybe I can get them to compare and contrast two sections of marketing? I also like the idea of getting students to do some peer and self marking with the essay.

So we will have:

Eleven or twelve quizzees that will have staggered cut off times during the term. There will be 20 questions that can be completed in one hour. Re-attempts will  not be permitted. These will be worth 15% of the overall grade.
Social marketing presentation. Using the case study, come up with a social marketing presentation. Worth 20% of the overal grade.
Marketing plan. Completed in groups of 2-4. Worth 30% of the overall grade (including potentially some peer assessment).
Literature review. Completed individually, but submitted to a peer, who must “mark and comment on the paper”. The student then takes that feedback on board to modify their assessment. The final assessment and peer report much be submitted for marking (25 and 10% respectively).
To ensure that students approach their learning in a consistent manner and across the duration of the term, students must achieve a total mark of 50% or higher in each of the four assessment pieces. The opportunity to re-submit assessment 2-4 will be provided to students.

During the development phase, all audio, video and text materials  are collected, prepared or created. Documentation is prepared and the product is ready to be tested – this the next step… Luckily I subscribe to the “just in time teaching” theory!

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Danya Hodgetts

Dr Danya Hodgetts is a Sport Management consultant, educator and researcher with more than 25 years experience in the sport industry. Danya specialises in developing and implementing innovative education, training and professional development programs for national and state sporting bodies, TAFE and University.

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